Tips for Development of Training

Part 1 - Useful Acronyms

The Training Mix:

A- Attitude

S- Skills

K- Knowledge

bjection Handling:

A- Acknowledge

P- Probe

A- Answer

C- Confirm

Honey & Mumford Learning Styles:

P- Pragmatist

A- Activist

R- Reflector

T- Theorist


E- Explain

D- Demonstrate

I- Imitate/ Instruct

P- Practice

Sensory Learning Styles:

V- Visual

A- Auditory

R- Read/ Write

K- Kinaesthetic

Part 2 - Sensory Learning Styles (VARK) Visual Learners

Nobody uses one of the styles exclusively, and usually most participants have a significant overlap in styles.

Visual Learners will learn most effectively when complex information is presented to them using diagrams, symbols and visual representation.

Are neat and orderly

Speak quickly

Are good long-range planners and organisers

Are observant of environmental detail

Are appearance orientated in both dress and presentation

Remember what was seen, rather than heard

Memorise by visual association

Usually are not distracted by noise

Need an overall view and purpose and are cautious until mentally clear about an issue or project

Doodle during phone conversations and meetings

Forget to relay verbal messages to others

Often know what to say but can’t think of the words

Part 3 - Sensory Learning Styles (VARK) - Auditory Learners

Nobody uses one of the styles exclusively, and usually most participants have a significant overlap in styles.

Auditory Learners will relate most effectively to the spoken word. They will tend to listen to a lecture, and then take notes afterwards, or rely on printed notes. often information written down will have little meaning untill it has been heard – it may help auditory learners to read written information out loud.

Auditory learners may be sophisticated speakers, and may specialise effectively in subjects like law and politics.

Learn by listening, and remember what was discussed rather than seen

Speak in rhythmic patterns

Talk to themselves while working

Are easily distracted by noise

Move their lips and pronounce the words they read

Enjoy reading aloud and listening

Can repeat back and mimic tone, pitch and timbre

Find writing difficult, but are better at telling

Are frequently eloquent speakers

Are talkative, love discussion, and go into lengthy descriptions

Have problems with projects that involve visualisation

Can spell better out loud than in writing

Part 4 - Sensory Learning Styles (VARK) - Read/Write Learners

Read/ write learners relate most effectively to in-depth written information.

Typically they will be unhappy with a presentation where they are unable to take detailed notes – to an extent information does not exist for a read/write learner unless it has been seen written down. This is why some read/write learners will take notes even when they have printed course notes on the desk.

Are good spellers and can actually see the words in their minds

Are strong, fast readers

Would rather read than be read to

Find writing and re-writing helpful when learning information

Are often the people who read manuals and instructions

May forget verbal instructions unless they’re written down

Like to read information before they hear about it

Need plenty of opportunity and time to write extensively

Like lots of detail in their information

Like lists with clear headings

Part 5 - Sensory Learning Styles (VARK) Kinasthetic Learners

Kinaesthetic learners learn effectively through touch, movement and space, and learn skills by imitation and practice.

Predominantly kinaesthetic learners can appear slower at learning, in that information is normally not presented in a style that suits their learning methods.

Learn by manipulating and doing

Want to act things out

Speak slowly

Touch people to get their attention

Stand close when talking to someone

Are physically orientated and move and gesture a lot

Memorise by walking and seeing

Can’t sit still for long periods of time

Can’t remember geography unless they’ve actually been there

Use action words

Like plot-oriented books – they reflect action with body movement as they read

May have messy handwriting

Like involved games

Part 6 - Psychological Styles (Honey & Mumford) - Activists

Activists involve themselves fully and without bias in new experiences. They enjoy the here and now and are happy to be dominated by immediate experiences. They are open-minded, not sceptical, and this tends to make them enthusiastic about anything new.

Their philosophy is ‘I’ll try anything once’. They tend to act first and consider the consequences afterwards. Their days are filled with activity. They tackle problems by brainstorming. As soon as the excitement from one activity has died down they are busy looking for the next.

They tend to thrive on the challenge of new experiences but are bored with implementation and longer term consolidation. They are gregarious people constantly involving themselves with others but in doing so; they seek to centre all activities around themselves.

Typical characteristics:


Get bored with consolidation

Happy to give things a try

Open minded

Optimistic about change

Rush into action without preparation

Takes immediate obvious action

Takes unnecessary risks

Unlikely to resist change

Tendency to do too much for themselves


Part 7 - Psychological Styles (Honey & Mumford) - Reflectors

Reflectors like to stand back to ponder experiences and observe them from many different perspectives. They collect data, both first hand and from others and prefer to think about it thoroughly before action. Analysis of data about experiences and events is what counts so they tend to postpone reaching definitive conclusions for as long as possible.

Their philosophy is to be cautious. They are thoughtful people who like to consider all possible angles and implications before making a move. They prefer to take a back seat in meetings and discussions. They enjoy observing other people in action. They listen to others and get the drift of the discussion before making their own points. They tend to adopt a low profile and have a slightly distant, tolerant and unruffled air about them.

When they act it is part of a wide picture which includes the past as well as the present and others’ observations as well as their own.

Typical characteristics:


Good listener

Hold back from participation


Dont jump to conclusions

Thorough & thoughtful

Part 8 - Psychological States (Honey & Mumford) Theorists

Theorists adapt and integrate observations into complex but logically sound theories. They think problems through in a vertical, step by step logical way. They assimilate disparate facts into coherent theories. They tend to be perfectionists who wont rest easy untill things are tidy and fit into a rational scheme.

They like to analyse and synthesise. They are keen on basic assumptions, theories, models and system thinking. Their philosophy prizes rationality and logic; “if it’s logical it’s good”. Questions they frequently ask are “Does it make sense”, “How does it fit with that”, “What are the basic assumptions”? They tend to be detached, analytical and dedicated to rational objectivity rather than anything subjective or ambiguous.

Their approach to problems is consistently logical. This is their mental set and they rigidly reject anything that doesn’t fit with it. They prefer to maximise certainty and feel uncomfortable with subjective judgements, lateral thinking and anything flippant.

Typical characteristics:


Intolerant of subjective, intuitive ideas


Low tolerance of uncertainty and ambiguity


Parental in approach

Probing when questioning


Restricted in lateral thought

Part 9 - Psychological Styles (Honey & Mumford) - Pragmatists

Pragmatists are keen on trying out ideas, theories and techniques to see if they work in practice. They positively search out new ideas and take the first opportunity to experiment with applications. They are the sort of people who return from management courses brimming with new ideas that they want to try out in practice. They like to get on with things and act quickly and confidently on ideas that attract them. They tend to be impatient with ruminating and open-ended discussions.

They are essentially practical, down to earth people who like making practical decisions and solving problems. They respond to problems and opportunities ‘as a challenge’. Their philosophy is ‘there is always a better way’ and ‘If it works it’s good’.

Typical characteristics:

Businesslike – gets to the point

Does not like “theory”

Impatient with waffle

Keen to test things out in practice

Practical, down to earth, realistic

Rejects ideas without clear application

Seize first, often obvious solution

Task focus

Technique focus

On balance task not people orientated


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